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Noted on the side of a tree in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in Oct 2017. About 3-4 cm long . Middle of a very hot day.
That is a planthopper, order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorhycha, Superfamily Fulgoroidea. It looks to be in the Genus Phrictus. Very similar to a picture I saw on the web of Phrictus diadema.
20 Startling Facts About Insects
Almost everywhere you look, you'll find one — or dozens — of the six-legged critters called insects. A wildly diverse bunch, the class Insecta includes ants, bees, flies, beetles and much more. These creatures all possess a body composed of three segments — head, thorax and abdomen — encased in a hard exoskeleton. All insects also sport a pair of antenna, compound eyes and three pairs of jointed legs. From that basic body plan, emerge all sorts of amazing behaviors and abilities, as Live Science reveals here in 20 startling facts about insects.
1. The most successful creatures. To date, scientists have catalogued about 1.5 million species of organisms on the planet, with insects making up about two-thirds of this bounty, researchers report in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. But scientists have only begun to scratch the surface: Studies estimate the total number of species on Earth is probably closer to 9 million. Of the planet's wildly diverse collection of creatures, some 90 percent of species are reckoned to belong to the class Insecta. Reasons for insects' success include their tiny size, which both makes hiding easier and reduces overall energy requirements wide diet of both natural and artificial foods tough, protective exoskeletons frequent possession of wings, which help them reach safety, grub and mates and prodigious ability to reproduce.
2. Meet the beetles. Beetles, of the insect order Coleoptera, are the most biodiverse group of creatures known, with more than 380,000 species described to date, making up 40 percent of all insect species on the books. When asked what a study of nature tells you about a creator, the British scientist J.B.S. Haldane once reportedly quipped that you can assume such a creator has "an inordinate fondness for beetles." A recent Proceedings of the Royal Society B study suggests the secret to beetle diversity, and likely to that of other insects groups, is their lifestyle versatility. This ensures that their species do not go extinct as readily as, say, mammal or amphibian species.
3. Planet of the ants. Outside in warm temperatures? If so, when you look down you'll probably spy an ant or two or 10 scurrying along. (It's not uncommon to see ants when indoors, either.) The renowned biologists Bert Hölldobler and E. O. Wilson estimated in their Pulitzer Prize-winning 1990 book, "The Ants" (Belknap Press), that on the order of 10 quadrillion ants live on the planet at any given moment. That's about 1.4 million ants per human, based on a world population of 7.3 billion people.
4. On every continent . . . but just barely. Although insects can be found by the buckets just about anywhere on Earth, there's one continent where they barely have a foothold: Antarctica. In fact, only one true species of insect, a wingless midge called Belgica antarctica, calls the southernmost continent home, according to the Laboratory for Ecophysical Cryobiology at Miami University (Ohio). The tiny fly is only 0.08 to 0.23 inches (0.2 to 0.58 centimeters) long, but it's still the Antarctic's largest terrestrial animal. Amongst this insect's many ingenious adaptations to Antarctic harshness, B. antarctica can withstand the freezing of its bodily fluids and sports a rich, purple-black complexion to soak up as much visible sunlight as it can for warmth.
5. Landlubbers. Seeing as you still can't escape insects even in Antarctica, there is one place where you can go to be virtually free of the six-legged creatures. That place is the 70 percent of the Earth's surface covered by the ocean. Why have insects failed to set up shop in the biggest biosphere on the planet? No one really knows why, but suggested explanations are that the oceans lack the plants for food and sheltering habitat that are found on land. Another possible explanation is that a cousin of insects, the crustaceans, have largely made the ocean their home, potentially muscling out their jointed-leg competitors.
6. Breathing through their sides. Insects do not breathe through their mouths. They inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide via holes called spiracles in their exoskeletons. These holes typically line insects' thoraxes and abdomens. Also bizarre: Insect respiratory systems are not patched into the animals' circulatory systems, as they are in humans, where the lungs exchange gases with the bloodstream. Instead, insects have a cardiovascular-like network of tubes, called a tracheal system, which delivers oxygen and ferries away carbon dioxide from each cell in the animals' bodies.
7. Blood bath. Speaking of circulatory systems, insects' are way different from humans'. Rather than closed vessels such as arteries and veins shuttling blood around, insects have an open circulatory system, in which their blood, called "hemolymph," bathes the organs. The insect "heart" is a segmented and chambered vessel running along the animal's back. This vessel contracts to send hemolymph forward toward the head from there, it sloshes around back into the rest of the body. Hemolympyh is typically clear but can be greenish or yellowish, as anyone knows who has seen certain bugs splatter on their windshield or underfoot.
8. Ancient critters. The oldest insect fossil — a set of jaws, actually — goes back 400 million years, suggesting insects were among the first animals to transition from sea to land. Insects, in other words, were around a good 170 million years before dinosaurs came onto the scene.
9. That's a big bug. The largest insect ever known to have terrorized the skies is Meganeuropsis, or the griffinfly, which was an ancient dragonfly with a wingspan of up to 2.5 feet (0.8 meters). These ancient dragonflies preyed on other insects and small amphibianlike creatures during their reign from about 290 million to 250 million years ago.
10. Monsters and motes. The heftiest insect found today is New Zealand's giant weta, a cricketlike beast that can weigh more than a pound. The longest insect, meanwhile, is Chan's megastick, native to the island of Borneo and stretching over 22 inches (66 cm). The smallest insect, you ask? The evocatively named fairyflies from Costa Rica. In one of these wasp species, Dicopomorpha echmepterygis, the male is a mere 0.005472 inches (0.014 cm) long.
11. I see you . . . and you, and you, and you, and you! A prominent feature on insects is the compound eye, consisting of many individual visual units called ommatidia. A popular misconception (promulgated tongue-in-cheek in this section title) is that each unit acts as its own eye, each perceiving a total field of view. But in fact ommatidia act more like pixels, building up into a mosaic of imagery. The dragonfly is widely considered to have the most impressively ommatidia-studded compound eyes, with about 30,000 units per half-spheroid eye, according to researchers reporting in a 2012 issue of the online journal PLOS ONE. These ommatidia permit a nearly 360-degree field of view, handy for snatching flying insect prey out of the sky.
12. Bonus eyes. In addition to the two large compound eyes on either side of their heads, a number of insects have so-called simple eyes, or ocelli, in between, smack dab on their "foreheads." Many flying insects' ocelli form a triangle, with two aligned ocelli above a centralized third, looking more like an occult symbol than an independent visual system. The question of the ocelli's function long stymied researchers. Recent studies have reported, however, that the ocelli, at least in dragonflies, seem specialized for detecting light, particularly when distinguishing the horizon, according to scientists writing in a 2007 issue of the journal Vision Research. As such, dragonflies can quickly differentiate up from down, as it were, and keep their bearings during acrobatic flight maneuvers, a feat of attitude-sensing that could work nicely for both piloted and unpiloted aircraft.
13. Fast fly-er. Zoom! Jerry Butler, now an emeritus professor of entomology at the University of Florida, once shot a pellet out of an air rifle to see if a male horsefly of the species Hybomitra hinei wrighti could catch it. The guy-fly did, suggesting it must have flown at about 90 mph (145 km/h), the record for insects, as reported by Discover Magazine.
14. Methuselah insects. Most insects live for only a few days or weeks as reproducing adults, having spent much longer periods as larvae and pupae, the first two stages of the three-part insect life cycle. There are exceptions, however. Amongst the Hymenoptera order (ants, bees and wasps), the egg-laying queens of colonies can live for decades. In the case of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, queens can live perhaps as long as 30 years, according to research published in 2013 in the Journal of Animal Ecology. Taking the top prize are termite queens, which may reign for a half century, according to the USDA.
15. Running out of baby names. Talk about creating a dynasty. Termite queens can produce 6,000 to 7,000 eggs in a single day. An entomologist once recorded a queen of the termite species Macrotermes hellicosus, found in Africa and Southeast Asia, cranking out an egg at a rate of one every 2 seconds, which would add up to 43,000 a day, assuming she never took a break, according to the USDA.
16. Mad ups. The records for standing vertical jump for a human are in the 46-inch (117 cm) range, from NFL and NBA players (though there are claims of 64 inches for an amateur athlete, Kevin Bania). Either way, a human cannot jump higher than his or her own height. An insect called a meadow froghopper, species name Philaenus spumarius, on the other hand, can jump more than 100 times its height, up to about 28 inches — the insect world record, a scientist reported in 2003 in the journal Nature.
17. Strong as a . . . dung beetle? Scientists reported in 2010 (in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B) that the strongest insect on the planet is Onthophagus taurus, known variously as a horned dung beetle, bull-headed dung beetle and taurus scarab. The powerhouse beetle can pull 1,141 times its own body weight.
Admittedly, humans can pull an amazing amount as well. Kevin Fast, a Canadian pastor, holds the Guinness World Record for the heaviest aircraft pulled by a man, a CC-177 Globemaster III that tips the scales at 416,299 lbs. (188,830 kilograms). Fast dragged the behemoth 28 feet (9 m). Assuming he weighs 300 lbs. (136 kg), that's 1,388 times his body weight. Sorry, dung beetle!
18. Insectual healing. Suffice to say, the vagaries of insect sex would take up a whole article unto itself, but here's one fact to walk away with: To prevent competitors from also inseminating female mates, some male insects stay latched to the female for days on end. The male Indian stick insect, Necroscia sparaxes, has the record in the scientific literature at 79 days. Admittedly, it's not all sexy-time: Scientists studying a comparatively short mating session of five-and-half-days in different stick insect species found genital contact occurring for only 40 percent of the hookup. Otherwise, a "male clasping organ," specifically a modified set of back legs, kept the female from straying.
19. Can you hear me now? Insects have ears all over the place, yet rarely on their actual heads. Lacewings in the order Neuroptera have ears at the base of their wings. Crickets, including katydids, have thin sound-sensitive membranes on their legs. Grasshoppers' ears appear on their abdomens. The ears of tachinids, a parasitic type of fly, peek out from their necks. Some hawkmoths, meanwhile, apparently can detect ultrasonic vibrations with their mouthparts, all the better for avoiding bats, which use sound to locate prey at night. (To create their own ultrasonic bursts, to drive away bats, hawkmoths rub their genitals together.)
20. All bugs are insects, but not all insects are bugs. Not every insect is a bug. Strictly speaking, "bugs" are an order of insects called Hemiptera. These "true bugs," as entomologists also call them, are distinguished for having hypodermic-needle-like mouthparts. These beaks are perfect for piercing into tissue to slurp up fluids, whether from other insects, plants or — in the case of appropriately named bedbugs — blood from sleeping humans.
What separates NC State University from other schools? The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state.
Dr. David Tarpy Professor and Extension Specialist (Apiculture) Dr. Sydney Crawley Assistant Professor
Insect Investigations for PreK-2
What is an insect?
Ask your kids to describe insects.
Their answers may be very general or more specific, so depending on what you feel they already know about insects, you will probably want to pick and choose which parts of this Science Lesson you use.
You might also want to use our Insect Activities for PreK-2 to give your kids more hands-on experience!
Help your kids write a list of every insect they can think of.
Younger ones (preschool and kindergarteners) might want to draw a picture list, write their list on the chalkboard, or dictate their list for you to write out.
Encourage them to include anything they think is an insect since the goal of this activity is to develop thoughts.
As your study continues, they will be able to look over their lists again and cross off any items they included at first that are really not insects (such as spiders or roly-polys).
How can you tell an insect from a bug or other creepy-crawly creature?
Ask older kids (first and second graders) to describe characteristics that insects have in common. Younger kids can do this too, just get them started with some examples, such as ‘insects have eyes’ or ‘insects do not have tails.’
See the Insect Anatomy section for more ways to tell.
Visual learners will especially benefit from browsing nature magazines, books, encyclopedias, or the internet for pictures of different insects.
(A Google image search for ‘insects’ will bring up some great photos.)
Have them try to find a picture of each insect on their list or ask them to find one picture that shows each of the characteristics they mentioned.
How big are the insects you have seen? (Get younger kids to show you with their hands older kids might estimate the size of particular insects.) Some adult insects are less than 1 mm long that’s really tiny!
On the other hand, some rare stick insects in South America can grow all the way up to 36 cm (about 14′) long. (
Show the contrast between how big and small these dimensions are on a ruler.)
Insects do not have a backbone like humans and many other animals do.
In fact, insects do not have any bones they have a hard exoskeleton instead. ‘Exo’ means outside, so that means that the skeleton is on the outside of the insect’s body instead of on the inside like in our bodies.
Did you know that insects are related to crabs and lobsters, which also have exoskeletons?
Thinking Scientifically: Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates – can you think of any vertebrates?. Any animals that do not have a backbone, like insects, are called invertebrates.
All insects have three main body parts: a head, thorax, and abdomen. It’s important to know these parts in order. It helps to think of the thorax as being sandwiched in between the head (which is at the top just like your own head) and the abdomen (at the bottom).
Head: An insect has a small head that is a lot like your own head because it holds the insect’s brain, eyes, and mouth. Insects also have special feelers called antennae that stick out of the top of their heads. They use their antennae to smell and feel because they do not have noses and hands like we do.
Thinking Scientifically: You may have heard the word antenna before, but have you ever heard anyone say antennae (pronounced: an-ten-I)? Did you know that ‘antennae’ is just the plural form of the word ‘antenna’? When we say ‘antenna,’ we are talking about one and when we say ‘antennae,’ we are talking about two or more, just like when we say ‘shoe’ we are talking one shoe, and when we say ‘shoes’ we are talking about a pair of shoes.
Eyes: Insect eyes are much different from human eyes (called simple eyes).
In fact, insects do not even see things the same way we do! They have two compound eyes with many different lenses to see out of instead of just one lens in each eye like we do.
Each compound eye can have anywhere from 2 to 30,000 different surfaces that are very sensitive to light. Compound eyes cannot see very much detail or things that are far away.
They can see extremely quick movements and things that are close to them, though. If insects did not have compound eyes, they would have a very difficult time surviving and finding food!
Have you ever tried to swat a fly? What happened when you got close to it? It probably flew away the second you got close enough to swat it.
That is because a fly’s compound eyes bulge out of its head so it can see motion all around its body and see when you are coming closer to it.
Thinking Scientifically: Some insects, like grasshoppers, have compound eyes and normal eyes (called simple eyes)! With simple eyes, they can see a lot more detail and see things that are far away.
Thorax: Right below the insect’s head is a middle section called the thorax. The thorax of an insect is kind of like your chest, except insects have six legs that come out of their thorax! Insect legs have special joints (sort of like your knees) and tiny barbs on the ends instead of toes. Many kinds of insects have one or two pairs of wings attached to their thorax.
Thinking Scientifically: On insects, wings are always in pairs, just like on airplanes. Most adult insects have two pairs of wings, but some only have one pair, and some don’t have any wings at all! Can you think of any insects that do not have wings? Can you think of some with two pairs and some with only one pair? (Answers will vary, but here is an example: walking sticks do not have wings, grasshoppers have two pairs, and flies have only one pair of wings. There are more, can you think of any?)
Abdomen: The part below an insect’s thorax is called the abdomen. It is the largest part of the insect’s body and contains its stomach, just like your abdomen does. It also contains the insect’s reproductive system. Insects can reproduce (have babies) very quickly. Most insects reproduce by laying eggs, like chickens do, only insect eggs are very tiny and have soft shells.
Thinking Scientifically: To be a true insect, a creature must have a head, thorax, and abdomen, six legs, two antennae and an exoskeleton. Anything that does not have at least those characteristics is not an insect. Spiders have eight legs and two main body parts. Are they insects? No, they sure aren’t! Spiders belong to a class called arachnids. We do sometimes clump insects, spiders, centipedes, ticks, and others together and call them ‘bugs.’
You can print out a worksheet for your kids to color and label the basic insect body parts here: Insect Printout at Enchanted Learning
(Please note that this site is subscription based, but they offer many other coloring and work sheets about insects for free.)
Where do insects live?
Insects can be found almost everywhere on the Earth.
They live in the ground, on top of the ground, in the air, under logs and rock, inside and outside of plants, flowers, and trees, and even on other animals!
Did you know that some bugs can even survive in the extremely cold temperatures of Antarctica? (
Ask older kids to tell you what they know about Antarctica and point it out on a globe or map. Ask them how different temperatures affect life.)
Starting with your backyard, help your kids identify different areas where different types of insects might live. For example, in tall grass or weeds, in trees, flower gardens, vegetable gardens, etc.
Then think of forest areas (inside of rotting logs, on healthy trees, under rocks, etc.) and areas along the banks of ponds, stream, lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Have your kids try to guess what kinds of special characteristics certain insects might need to live in these different areas. Try to have them make distinctions between insects that live in wet places versus dry places and cool climates versus hot ones, etc.
What do you think insects need to live? Brainstorm about ways insects can get the things they need. Compare these things to what humans and other animals need for life.
The things insects need to survive are: food (protein), water, warmth during cold winter months, and shelter (from weather and predators).
Different types of insects need different amounts of these elements and they obtain them in different ways.
Can you think of how an insect that lives in your backyard might need different things than an insect that lives in a pond?
Review questions: What kinds of insects have you seen recently? Where did they live? What types of insects do you think you might find in your backyard? What about if you were in a forest or near a pond?
There are over 1 million known species of insects (and only around 4,500 species of mammals), and many more that have not even been discovered yet! As you can imagine, it must be hard for scientists to keep track of that many different insects. To help them out with such a big job, they came up with a system to sort all insects into different groups. This is called classifying. Classification is used for all kinds of animals, such as cats, dogs, pigs, salamanders, fish, and turtles.
We use classification for many other things too can you think of any? (Example: books, food, clothes, families, and jobs.) Insects are classified by their various characteristics. (Example: Ladybugs have six legs and hard outer wings. Grasshoppers have six legs and leathery wings. Spiders have eight legs and only two main body parts, so they are not classified as insects.)
To teach your kids more about how classification works, make a set of classification cards. Below is one idea, but these cards can be used in many different ways to correlate with your lesson planning, or just for fun!
An insect's compound eye is made up of many individual units packed together to form the surface of the eye. These units are hexagonal in shape and called ommatidea (singular ommatidium). Each eye can have more than a thousand ommatidea.
Each ommatidia has several photoreceptors and these allow the compound eye to form a mosaic image.
A photograph of the head of a woodworm beetle (Anobium punctatum) showing the compound eye and ommatidia.
Photograph by Siga licensed under Creative Commons.
Bed Bug Feeding
Bed bugs are attracted to the carbon dioxide emitted by their hosts. For this reason, they tend to feed at night on bare skin that is exposed while sleeping. However, they are opportunistic insects and will consume a blood meal during the day, especially in heavily-infested areas. Although bed bugs prefer to feed on humans, they will feed on other warm-blooded hosts as well.
Bed bugs usually require 5-10 minutes to engorge with blood. They feed by inserting two hollow, beak-like feeding tubes into their host. The first tube injects the bug's saliva, which contains anesthetics to numb the feeding area. The second tube draws blood. After feeding, they move to secluded places and hide for 5-10 days. During this time, they do not feed but instead digest their meal, mate and lay eggs.
Annual Termite Contracts
In most cases, the termite treatment on your house includes a one-year termite protection warranty from the pest control company. After one year, you must decide if you want to continue your contract. The cost of a renewal for a house that was treated with a liquid termiticide is typically between $85-$200, depending on the size and construction type of the house and perhaps the type of guarantee (explained below). The most frequently asked question is "Do I really need the annual contract?" Essentially, this is a matter of personal choice, i.e., how much "peace of mind" do you want in terms of protecting your home from termites. Remember: termites are always around us and always looking for "food" (wood). That fact alone does not mean that they are constantly attacking your house. It simply means that there is always some chance that termites might find their way unseen into your house.
The US Environmental Protection Agency requires that termiticide manufacturers prove that their chemicals can remain effective in protecting the structure for at least five years. In most situations, these chemicals usually last longer when applied properly. However, this 5-year requirement is not a guarantee that termites cannot (or will not) invade your house within a five year period. Many factors can affect a termite treatment, such as the way that you maintain your home or if you disturb the treated soil during renovations or landscaping activities. These kinds of situations can provide termites with opportunities to invade the house.
Annual termite contracts are somewhat like medical insurance policies. You are paying to protect your home against the possibility of termite attack. An annual contract can be an effective way of preventing termites from causing significant damage over the years. Likewise, this 5-year requirement by the EPA does not mean that the chemical is totally ineffective after 5 years. This last point will be addressed down below under "Booster Treatments". It's important to understand that an annual contract does not mean that the pest control company re-treats your house every year. Unless there is some evidence of termite activity in the house, annual treatments are actually illegal under most termiticide labels (and therefore illegal under both state and federal law). With a termite protection contract, the pest control company inspects (or should inspect) your house for termites annually. If they find evidence of termite activity or if you find evidence of termite activity, then the company takes some appropriate measures, usually a local or 'spot' treatment of the infested area. You should not have to pay for any additional treatment to correct a termite problem that cost is covered by your annual fee. In return, the company expects you to do your part in maintaining your house in a condition that does not increase likelihood of termite problems. For example, routine home maintenance helps prevents moisture problems or other conditions that are conducive to termite activity in the area, i.e., if termites find such area, they are more likely to remain active or expand their activity in that area. Make sure that the termite inspector explains any problem areas that he/she finds during the inspections so that you can correct these problems as soon as possible. In some cases, your failure to correct reported problems may void your termite protection contract. If you're not home when the house is inspected, the inspector should leave some sort of notice or report about his/her findings. If you're not clear on the results, call the company's office and ask them to explain if anything important was found.
Does my contract coverage termite damage?
An important point about your contract concerns damage. Many people assume that their contract automatically covers damage repairs, but that is not always the case. Many termite protection contracts offer "retreatment only", i.e., the pest control company will retreat areas as necessary in order to correct the problem, but the retreatment is all they are obligated to do under the terms of this type of contract. Other contracts cover a retreatment as well as the cost of repairs to wood or other structural components that are damaged by the termites. These contracts may have a higher annual renewal fee than a "retreat-only" contract. While a repair warranty may be an important option to you, but it's important to understand the limits of the repair coverage. If your house is infested when you have it treated, then you should assume that there could be hidden damage, e.g., to wood framing behind a wall.
Read your contract carefully
If you have had the contract since the house was built (and presumably it was not built with termite damaged wood), then any damage should be covered by the terms of the contract. However, this also assumes that you have upheld your part by not disrupting the treated soil or allowing termite-favorable conditions to develop on/around your home. On the other hand, if you buy an previously-owned home that has not had a contract (regardless of when it was last treated), then the contract likely excludes "existing damage." What does that mean? For example, if in the course of renovating your house you find termite damage behind a wall but there are no termites found, then this situation is usually considered to be "existing damage" (i.e., prior to the start of your contract with the pest control company). Therefore, it is excluded from your repair guarantee because there is no way to determine if the damage occurred before or after the start of your contract. We are not aware of any scientifically sound way to precisely determine the age of termite damage. This exclusion is not simply an excuse for the company to avoid their contractual obligations to you. This is a legitimate issue that you need to understand clearly and should have it explained to you BEFORE you sign the contract.
For your own protection, make sure you receive (and keep) records provided to you by the company. Also, if you sell your house, you should pass these records onto the buyer. Important records to keep include:
- Your original contract which should include a graph of the house with details of the initial inspection and the treatment specifications.
- All annual inspection reports and any noted changes in the conditions of your house, including new signs of termite activity, moisture conditions, etc.
One other important point of note. Your termite protection contract is strictly that - a contract for termites and termite control. Unless specified otherwise, your contract does not include inspections or coverage for other wood-damaging pests, such as carpenter ants, carpenter bees, powderpost beetles or wood-decaying fungi (although the inspector may note such problems and bring them to your attention). For additional advice on consumer protection and your termite contract, read the publication A Homeowner's guide to Termite Control Service Agreements and Warranties by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services.
A thorough inspection of the house is needed before treating for termites.
Why do insects communicate?
Insects communicate both with organisms of the same species (intraspecific communication) and directly or indirectly with organisms of other species (interspecific communication) for many reasons:
- Reproduction : to look for a mate, courtship…
- To identify members of the same species or even to warn other organisms of its own presence .
- To localize sources of recourses : food, nidification places,…
- As an alert signal towards potential hazards.
- To defend territory .
- As a way to camouflage or to mimic other organisms (Do you want to learn more about animal mimicry? click here!).
Avermectins in insect control and biology: a review
In a variety of laboratory and field experiments, avermectins have been tested against some 84 species of insects in ten orders, most of which are pests of livestock or horticultural crops or are of general nuisance value. This work is reviewed, comparing doses used, methods of application, and responses of the insects. Avermectins (abamectin and ivermectin) are toxic to almost all insects examined, although tolerance varies and death can be uncommonly slow, taking 24 h to 30 days. There is a marked absence of information on physiological processes that are affected by the pesticides, although at the cellular level they are thought to disrupt receptors for y-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the central nervous system and muscular system. At high doses, treated insects are progressively immobilized, and although initially many can move when stimulated, this ability becomes lost. Some show a disturbed water balance and become distended with fluid, while others show disruption of moulting and metamorphosis. Feeding inhibition is commonly observed at sub-lethal doses. Avermectins affect many aspects of reproduction including mating behaviour, egg development, oviposition and egg hatching. The possibility is raised that these diverse disturbances are not all due to disruption of neuromuscular or central nervous system synapses, and the need for work in this area is stressed. Field studies have shown ivermectin to be most valuable in eradicating insect pests of livestock, but the use of abamectin against horticultural pests has produced less impressive results. The limited work on non-target species is discussed, and attention is drawn to some possible environmental consequences of excreted ivermectin on dung-breeding insects.
Lab Kit for use with Abeka Biology Grade 10
This item only ships Economy or UPS to a street address in the 50 US states.
Take the hassle out of high-school science! This kit contains chemicals, microscope slides, dissection specimens, and more for completing labs in the Abeka Book® grade 10 curriculum Biology: God's Living Creation, 4th edition.
A microscope, such as the Home Microscope, is recommended. A balance is optional.
Abeka®, Abeka Book®, and Abeka Academy® are registered trademarks of Pensacola Christian College, Inc. (PCC). Home Science Tools is not affiliated with Abeka Book, Abeka Academy or Pensacola Christian College, Inc. (PCC).
Note: Specimens are initially preserved with a formaldehyde solution, the best animal tissue fixative. The formaldehyde is then displaced first with water and finally with a glycol solution to produce a moist, low-fume specimen which will not decay over time.
HST Specimen Guarantee
In sealed, original packaging, our preserved specimens are guaranteed to remain fully preserved and free of decay for six months from the date of purchase.
Once the original package is opened, use specimen within one month. For best results, observe the following storage procedures:
- Store specimen in heavy-duty, zip-lock bags to minimize drying between dissections.
- Specimen will slowly dry out or become contaminated in zip-lock bags add a teaspoon of Specimen Holding Fluid to retain moisture.
- Freezing or refrigeration is not necessary and may damage fragile tissues.
WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including Formaldehyde, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer, and Methanol, which is known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm.
MORE INFORMATION BOX
Science Lab Kit for Abeka Biology Curriculum
This kit includes the following items (download the kit order form to order individual or optional items):
- Advanced dissecting tools, 17 pieces
- Dissecting pan, 10" x 7"
- Insect killing jar, 9 oz size
- Insect pins, size 2, student 100/pack
- Insect spreading board, 12x4"
- Magnifier, 5x/10x power
- Petri dish, plastic, 2/pk
- Pins, dissection, 2", 6/pack
- Pipet (medicine dropper)
- Seeds, corn, 15 g pack
- Seeds, lima bean, 15 g pack
- Seeds, radish, 4 g pack
- Daphnia Instant Culture
- 12 plain slides
- 2 concave slides
- Slide storage box (x2)
- String, 25 ft
- Alcohol lamp stand
- Alcohol lamp, wickless (buy alcohol fuel here)
- Beaker, glass, 1000 ml
- Graduated cylinder, glass, 100 ml
- Test tube clamp
- Test tube rack, 25 mm, 24 holes
- Test tubes, large 16 x 150 mm
- Ascorbic acid, 5 g
- Benedict's solution, 30 ml
- Biuret reagent, 30 ml
- Dextrose (glucose), 30 g
- Ethyl acetate, 30 ml
- Indophenol, dichloro, 0.5 g
- Iodine solution (Lugol's) 30ml
- Methyl cellulose, 1.5%, 30 ml
- Methylene blue, 1%, 15 ml
- Gelatin, unflavored
- Allium (onion) root tip
- Desmids (green algae)
- Diatoms, marine
- Ficus (dicot) leaf
- Human blood smear
- Human bone ground
- Human skin section
- Human squamous epithelium
- Muscle, 3 types
- Motor neuron, smear
- Ranunculus (Buttercup) stem
- Spirogyra (green algae)
- Tilia (Basswood)
- Trachea section
- Volvox (green algae)
- Zea Mays (Corn) stem
- Sheep brain
- Crayfish, 4-6"
- Earthworm, 8-10"
- Frog, 3-4"
- Grasshopper, Lubber
- Sheep heart
- Perch, 9-12"
- Pig, 10-13"
- Starfish, 5-6"
Note: Dissection specimens are initially preserved with a formaldehyde solution, the best animal tissue fixative. The formaldehyde is then displaced first with water and finally with a glycol solution to produce a moist, low-fume specimen which can be stored almost indefinitely. We recommend that you use specimens within one year of purchase to ensure the best tissue quality.
While our kits conveniently contain most of the items you'll need to complete the labs, they do not include some common household items or more expensive items like microscopes and live cultures. Please see the kit order form for items you might wish to order separately.
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