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8.1: Photosynthesis - Biology

8.1: Photosynthesis - Biology



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Now that we’ve learned about the different pieces of photosynthesis, let’s put it all together. This video walks you through the process of photosynthesis as a whole:

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: pb.libretexts.org/biom1/?p=256


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______________ Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Section 8-1 Energy and Life (pages 201-203) This section explains where plants get the energy they need Have a look at the concept map below for 'Photosynthesis and Respiration'. All organisms release energy from food, called. " What type of energy does food contain? Chloroplasts are a type of organelle found only in plant cells. This energy is contained in the chemical bonds of ATP molecules. This question was specifically included to introduce learners to the concept of validity and teachers are encouraged to allow learners to debate this issue in the class. Present your report on separate paper. Photosynthesis is essential for all life on earth, What is the chemical energy in the cell called? Presentation on theme: " Chapter 8 Photosynthesis. 8-1 Energy and Life Autotrophs Make their own food 8-1 Energy and Life."- Presentation transcript: Ensure that learners understand that respiration occurs constantly, during the day and night. Transcript of 8.1 Energy and Life. 8.2 Photosynthesis: An overview Chapter 8 Photosynthesis 8.3 The Light-Dependent Reactions: Generating ATP and NADPH chapter 8 photosynthesis section 8 1 energy and life answer key PDF photosynthesis making energy worksheet and answer key PDF photosynthesis making energy.. The relationships between different concepts are shown using arrows with linking phrases, such as "results in", "includes", "can be", "used to", "depends on", etc. Discussion: Assess learners ability to explain their results. And so on! All organisms release the stored potential energy from the food that they eat to support their life processes. However, in order to store large amounts of glucose, plants need to convert it into compounds which are insoluble in water. Discuss this with your learners.

This teacher's guide contains the full version of each concept map. The carbon dioxide that is produced in the body of an organism during respiration needs to be removed. Find out why plants that photosynthesise are green. Leave the leaf in the alcohol until all the chlorophyll has been removed from the leaf and the alcohol turns green. All living organisms can use energy in the form of chemical potential energy for the life photosynthesis. The energy from this Natural Sciences, chapter 8 photosynthesis section 8 1 energy and life answer key PDF photosynthesis section energy and life answers PDF 81 energy and life worksheet answer key.. Please emphasise to learners that they should refer to iodine solution, and not just iodine (which is a bluish black solid). Safety warning: remove the needles from the syringes, if there are any, before you hand out the syringes in class. chapter 8 photosynthesis section 8 1 energy and life answer key PDF section 3 reinforcement energy for life answers PDF 81 energy and life worksheet answer.. It starts off with carbon dioxide through limewater test and then demonstrates the starch test. Place the leaf into warm water to soften it. If you do not have time to do both parts of the investigation, a suggestion is to get your learners to read through Part 1, and then to conduct Part 2 where they have to write up their own report. We have now seen how plants produce food during photosynthesis. Comeback. The amount of iodine solution required to observe a result depends on the leaf tested. Describe what you observed when you blew air from your lungs through the limewater. After you have done part 1, you can do part 2 in the following lesson. For example, read the concept map as follows, "Respiration takes place in all organisms. We can represent respiration as an equation in the same way as we did for photosynthesis. They set up the following two experiments. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy Advanced High School Life Science Standards. Indicator 1: (Ch 8 Photosynthesis)

Photosynthesis 8 1 energy and life worksheet

Learners have already looked at photosynthesis and respiration in previous grades. 1/8 Photosynthesis Section Energy And Life Answers Scholastic Worksheet Answers Modern Chemistry Packet Answers Pre Algebra Semester 2 Practice Exam.. Often a concept map has a "focus question" from which the other concepts radiate. Teachers may also feel safer if they demonstrate this experiment. Should you wish to do so, you can make this distinction to your learners and introduce the term cellular respiration, however, it will only be clear once they have done cells in Gr. Think of an unripe green banana and a ripe yellow banana. Learners should be able to describe the taste and texture of each banana: the ripe one being soft and sweet, and the unripe one being firm and not too sweet. Figuring out the study method that works best for you, and developing these skills is very useful, especially for later in high school and after school! Encourage your learners to study the concept maps and make sense of them at the end of each chapter before doing the revision questions. Notice what happens to the clear limewater. Help them by reminding them of the two types of energy, namely kinetic energy and potential energy. Possible answers include: 'To determine whether leaves photosynthesise in the dark or the light', or 'To investigate whether Light is necessary for Photosynthesis'. This is because the energy is actually contained within the molecules produced (ATP). The process releases oxygen. Photosynthesis Section 8-1 Energy and Life Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and Chapter 8, Photosynthesis Which method of testing is better to use and why do you say so? So how does this happen? Why do you think you observed the result you did when you pushed air from the atmosphere through the limewater? 8-1 Energy and Life & 8-2 Photosynthesis6 terms by gcosgrove3 organisms that obtain energy from other organisms ATP consists of adenine Next term in Matter and Materials, we will look at chemical reactions and define the 'ingredients' as reactants. The steps in the method must be numbered. Real understanding and knowledge comes from grappling with the subject matter, and not just memorizing facts. Therefore, to see if a plant photosynthesises, we can test to see if the plant produced starch. There is a very well known test for detecting carbon dioxide using clear limewater. You can also take a walk around your school property and surrounds to see if you can find any variegated leaves. This is useful to the plant as it means it can transport the glucose in water to where it is needed elsewhere in the plant. Companies! Blow bubbles through the rubber tube into the beaker marked BREATH, as shown in the diagram. The conclusion is that unripe bananas contain more starch than ripe bananas. Iodine solution is dripped on it. You should place one set of pot plants in the cupboard the day before you want to do part 1 of the investigation. For now, let's use this test to show that our breath contains carbon dioxide. Biology Fall Final - Chapter 8: Photosynthesis 2012 - 8.1 Energy and Life - 8.2 Photosynthesis: of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH


A very small percentage of atmospheric air is carbon dioxide gas (0.03). This process is called respiration. So how do we test that our breath contains carbon dioxide? It is also important to make sure that the only thing affecting the limewater was the gas released in the experiment, and not carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. LIFE SCIENCE STANDARDS. LIFE SCIENCE STANDARDS. HS-LS1-5 Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis What did you learn from doing this investigation? Draw air into the syringe from the atmosphere. In physiology, respiration refers to the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells and the transport of carbon dioxide out of the tissues and into the air. During photosynthesis in plants, oxygen is produced as a by-product. Cellulose is used to support and strengthen plants. http://crossroadshob.ning.com/profiles/blogs/anti-diabetes-spices-geneva You need to design this investigation yourself. This is the metabolic process in all organisms where oxygen is combined with glucose to release water and carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Plants use radiant energy from the Sun in a series of chemical reactions to change carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil into glucose. They are glucose (food) and oxygen. This is included as an introduction to the subsequent investigation. After this, place the leaf into the beaker with the ethyl alcohol. Some objects with potential energy are a book on the table (it has gravitational potential energy as it can fall down to the ground), a bouncing ball when it is at the top of its bounce as it can also fall back down, a batteries, fossil fuels have and food have potential energy. Remove one healthy looking leaf from the pot plants that were in the well-lit area exposed to direct sunlight. Limited Time Offer, Buy It Now! Learners need to learn how to learn! The "Key concepts" listed above is a summary written out in full sentences. Remember, food is the fuel for our bodies. INSIDE: • 8.1 Energy and Life. • 8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview. 8.2 photosynthesis: an overview worksheet. Complete Worksheet if sub in class: They can also do this in groups. For example in this case you could read: "Respiration takes place in all organisms, releases energy from food".


Do you remember that we spoke about energy for movement (kinetic energy) and energy that is stored (potential energy) in Energy and Change in Gr. It is important that learners be made aware that we do not taste-test unknown substances due to the potential for poisoning. Our bodies need energy to move and do work. This investigation can be done over 2 lessons. Let's find out why. chapter 8 photosynthesis section 8 1 energy and life answer key PDF photosynthesis making energy worksheet answers PDF biology chapter8 energy and life.. When the ATP molecules are broken down they release the energy in order for other processes to take place. Have a look at the following photos of different plants. How to! The learners wanted to collect any gas that formed from the solution in Test Tube A and bubble it through the limewater. What three things are used to make glucose in photosynthesis? Light energy, Photosynthesis is Now that we know that plants produce glucose and change this into starch, we can find out if all leaves produce the same amount of starch through photosynthesis. Results: Learners should draw a table to record their results. A Gr. 4 learner wanted to grow some beans and carefully planted them in a yoghurt tub and watered them. ATP is not energy itself, but instead it stores energy. Let's find out.
2/25/2012 ·ň.1 Energy and Life from 8.1 Energy and Life By: Rojan Lotfdoust 1. 8.1 Energy light to energy into chemicalenergy. Photosynthesis 8.1 Energy and Life. Objectives. Explain the interrelationships between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration comparing and contrasting Fill in the requirements of photosynthesis in the block on the left and fill in what type of energy is needed and the name of the pigment that absorbs the energy. What do you notice about the leaves? This being the first investigation that they will perform in high school, this activity will allow teachers to gauge their level of proficiency and abilities in this regard. You table should highlight the differences in requirements, the differences in the products, which organisms the processes takes place in, and when. http://antidiabetesveget.thecrazy.me/herbal-supplements-and-diabetes.html Depending on what he planted the beans in, he might have noticed a root and first leaves forming. After conducting the investigation, you need to write up an experimental report of your findings. 8-1 Energy and Life Plants and some other types of organism are able to use light energy from the sun Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Vocabulary Review Class Variegated leaves have white patterns (areas lacking chlorophyll) on them. The starch test might show that the unripe banana contains more starch.


Main Structures and Summary of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide (which is low in energy), and water as substrates (Figure). After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules (which are high in energy) that can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or any of dozens of other sugar molecules. These sugar molecules contain energy and the energized carbon that all living things need to survive.

Photosynthesis uses solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to produce energy-storing carbohydrates. Oxygen is generated as a waste product of photosynthesis.

The following is the chemical equation for photosynthesis (Figure):

The basic equation for photosynthesis is deceptively simple. In reality, the process takes place in many steps involving intermediate reactants and products. Glucose, the primary energy source in cells, is made from two three-carbon GA3Ps.

Although the equation looks simple, the many steps that take place during photosynthesis are actually quite complex. Before learning the details of how photoautotrophs turn sunlight into food, it is important to become familiar with the structures involved.

In plants, photosynthesis generally takes place in leaves, which consist of several layers of cells. The process of photosynthesis occurs in a middle layer called the mesophyll. The gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through small, regulated openings called stomata (singular: stoma), which also play roles in the regulation of gas exchange and water balance. The stomata are typically located on the underside of the leaf, which helps to minimize water loss. Each stoma is flanked by guard cells that regulate the opening and closing of the stomata by swelling or shrinking in response to osmotic changes.

In all autotrophic eukaryotes, photosynthesis takes place inside an organelle called a chloroplast. For plants, chloroplast-containing cells exist in the mesophyll. Chloroplasts have a double membrane envelope (composed of an outer membrane and an inner membrane). Within the chloroplast are stacked, disc-shaped structures called thylakoids. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane is chlorophyll, a pigment (molecule that absorbs light) responsible for the initial interaction between light and plant material, and numerous proteins that make up the electron transport chain. The thylakoid membrane encloses an internal space called the thylakoid lumen. As shown in Figure, a stack of thylakoids is called a granum, and the liquid-filled space surrounding the granum is called stroma or “bed” (not to be confused with stoma or “mouth,” an opening on the leaf epidermis).

Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, which have an outer membrane and an inner membrane. Stacks of thylakoids called grana form a third membrane layer.

On a hot, dry day, plants close their stomata to conserve water. What impact will this have on photosynthesis?


Section Summary

The process of photosynthesis transformed life on Earth. By harnessing energy from the sun, photosynthesis evolved to allow living things access to enormous amounts of energy. Because of photosynthesis, living things gained access to sufficient energy that allowed them to build new structures and achieve the biodiversity evident today.

Only certain organisms, called photoautotrophs, can perform photosynthesis they require the presence of chlorophyll, a specialized pigment that absorbs certain portions of the visible spectrum and can capture energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water to assemble carbohydrate molecules and release oxygen as a waste product into the atmosphere. Eukaryotic autotrophs, such as plants and algae, have organelles called chloroplasts in which photosynthesis takes place, and starch accumulates. In prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria, the process is less localized and occurs within folded membranes, extensions of the plasma membrane, and in the cytoplasm.


EXPLORING BIOLOGY

__________________________________________

Looking at the structure of a plant leaf .
- Leafs in a plant contain the most chloroplasts and are the major sites for photosynthesis to take place.
- Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the mesophyll (inner layer of tissure).
- On the surface of the leaf, there are pores called stomata , where CO2 enters and O2 exits through.
- Veins carry water and nutrients, and also other organic molecules produced in the leaves, through stomatas and to other parts of the plant.

Looking inside the chloroplast s' structure.
Chloroplast

inner: thick fluid - stroma

stroma: Many disk-shaped sacs: thylakoids

Thylakoids:
+ each has a membrane surrounding the interior space.
+ Thylakoids arranged in stacks are called grana .

- Photosynthesis is a process of plants and other producers, or autotrophs, converting the energy of sunlight into useful energy that is stored in organic molecules. - Photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration.

2. What are the reactants for photosynthesis? What are the products?
Reactants: CO2, H2O
Products: Glucose, Oxygen
6 O2 + 6 H2O ->->-> C6H12O6 + 6 O2


Photosynthesis Theory

Standard level students need to know about photolysis and the light independent reactions which take place in the stroma but with only simple details. This activity leaves out the complexity and gives students a clear understanding of the basic parts of photosynthesis. The second part of the lesson includes a short video and questions about the construction of an absorption spectrum graph.The equation of photosynthesis.

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Sulli's Biology

Homeostasis takes energy. Where does it come from?

Energy is the ability to do work.

Organisms are doing work all the time. Even when at rest, organisms are using energy for things such as transporting molecules across the cell membrane, building proteins, responses to chemical signals, and contracting muscles. The sodium-potassium pump is a protein pump commonly found in cell membranes. ATP keeps this pump working.

Energy can be found in many forms including light, sound, heat, and chemical. Living organisms use chemical fuel. One of the most widely used chemical used for energy in organisms is ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. ATP consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and three phosphate groups.

The energy used in ATP is found in the bonds between the phosphate groups.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate) is a compound that looks almost like ATP, except that it has two phosphate groups instead of three.
Small amounts of energy are stored in the bonds which hold the phosphate molecules together. When cells have extra energy, phosphates are added to ADP to make ATP. When energy is needed, the third phosphate is broken off and energy is released and used by the cell.

This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells. Most cells only have a small amount of ATP, enough to last for a few seconds of activity. ATP is a great molecule for transferring energy, but, it is not a good one for storing large amounts of energy over the long term. After ATP is used up, cells must turn to breaking down glucose molecule in the presence of oxygen (respiration). With foods like glucose, cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed.

Analogy
When a phosphate group is added to an ADP molecule, ATP is produced. ADP contains some energy, but not as much as ATP. In this way, ADP is like a partially charged battery that can be fully charged by the addition of a phosphate group.


9.1 Intensity of light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 9.1). The word usually refers to visible light, which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400-700 nanometres (nm), or 400 × 10 -9 to 700 × 10 -9 m, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths). This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430-750 terahertz (THz).

In this experiment (Figure 9.2), we will study the effect of light intensity on the photosynthetic activity of Elodea canadensis. We will vary the light intensity by changing the distance between the light source and the plant. We will count the emerging oxygen bubbles as an indicator of the photosynthetic activity of the plant.

Figure 9.2: Setup for photosynthesis experiment.

9.1.1 Experimental procedures

Before you begin with the actual experiment, write down in your own words the hypothesis for this experiment:

Do the data support or contradict your hypothesis?

Figure 9.3: Appearance of bubbles indicates active photosynthesis.


Bio 11 – Botany – Exercise 12 – Photosynthesis

1. Examine young variegated leaves of coleus or caricature plant, Graptophyllum pictum (L.) Griff, and note the distribution of chlorophyll as indicated by the green area.

2. place the leaf in boiling water for a few minutes. Immerse it in a test tube containing 95% ethyl alcohol. Place the test tube in a warm bath until the pigments are extracted.

2.1 What is the purpose of boiling the leaf?

3. Rinse the bleached leaf with water and place in a petri dis. Test for the presence of starch using dilute IKI solution. The presence of starch as shown by a bluish-black to purple coloration indicates the occurence of photosynthesis.

3.2 How does it compare with your sketch in 1.1?

Non-green areas – non-photosynthetic

3.3 Do the non-green areas of the leaf contain starch?

3.4 What can you conclude from this experiment?

Only those with chlorophyll can undergo photosynthesis

B. Light as a Factor in Photosynthesis

4. Place a potted coleus or bean plant in the dark. After 48-75 hours, warp one of the leaves with carbon paper or aluminum foil. Expose the plant to light for 6 to 10 hours. Detach the covered and one uncovered leaf of the same size and test for presence of starch as previously done in section A above.

4.1 Why was it necessary to place the plants in the dark for 48-72 hours?

Consume starch reserves in plant

4.2 Why was carbon paper or aluminum foil used?

Prevent light from reaching leaves

4.3 What areas in the covered and uncovered leaves showed a positive reaction to the starch test?

Uncovered areas contained starch

4.4 Can plants carry out photosynthesis under artificial light as well as natural or day light?

4.5 What can you conclude from this experiment?

Light is needed for photosynthesis

5. Immerse a hydrilla shoot with the cut end of the stem turned up in a clean test tube with tap water. To enrich the CO2 content of the water, add 10-15 drops of 1 percent NaHCO3. place the tube under dim light and count the number of bubbles released at 1 min intervals for 10 mins. Repeat the experiment under bright light.

5.2 How would you correlate the rate of gas evolution with the rate of photosynthesis?

5.3 What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis?

More intense light, higher rate of photosynthesis

C. Carbon Dioxide as a Factor in Photosynthesis

Half-fill each of three test tubes with water that has previously been boiled to remove dissolved air and cooled to room temperature. Add several drops of phenol red to each tube and shake gently. Phenol red is an indicator of p H. Indirectly it is an indicator of CO2 concentration since CO2 in water forms carbonic acid which lowers the pH of water. At low pH, the color of phenol red changes to yellow. With the aid of a soda straw, blow into the water in test tubes 1 and 2 until the solution just shows a change in color from red to yellow. Test tube 3 serves as control.

6.1 Account for any change in color in test tubes 1 and 2

7. Using the set-up prepared in section 6, place a shoot of hydrilla in test tube 1. place the 3 tubes in very bright light. After 20 to 30 minutes, note the color changes.

7.1 Which tubes show a change in color? Why?

Color in test tube 1 goes back to red since CO2 is being used for photosynthesis by the hydrilla plant. With less CO2, the water’s acidity goes back to normal level.

D. Separation of Pigments

8. Secure 5 mature leaves of papaya or 10 of hibiscus. Cut the lamina into small pieces and grind in a mortar to secure a deep green liquid extract and collect this into a small test tube. Place two or three drops of the leaf extract at about 1 to 2cm fromthe base of a strip of filter paper the width of which should not touch the sides of the test tubes. Carefully hang the strip on the lower or basal end of a cork with the use of a aper clip or adhesive and lower this into a clean dry test tube to which has been added 3-5ml of a solvent consisting of a mixture of 95 parts petroleum ether and 5 parts of acetone. The part of the strip containing the leaf extract should not be submerged in the solvent. Cork the test tube and observe the separation of the pigments. The development of the chromatogram is stopped when the solvent has travelled about 1 to 2 cm from the top of the strip. The chromatogram is stopped when the solvent has travelled about 1 to 2 cm from the top of the strip. The chromatogram should be observed at frequent intervals because if the separation continues for too long some of the pigments may be superimposed on each other near the top of the strip.

8.1 What colors are indicated in the chromatogramand what are the corresponding pigments they represent?

yellow green/ light green – chlorophyll b

green / blue green – chlorophyll a

Some answers differ for each class/group.

Table 12.1 is based on your group’s data.

For 8.1, it is possible for the chromatogram to not show an orange color.

For “8.2. Which pigment is the least soluble or moves the slowest along the strip? The most soluble and travelling farthest up the strip?” Least soluble would be the color at the bottom and the most soluble would be the one at the topmost.


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Watch the video: Travel Deep Inside a Leaf - Annotated Version. California Academy of Sciences (August 2022).