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4.5: Chapter Resources - Biology

4.5: Chapter Resources - Biology



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Summary

Populations are individuals of a species that live in a particular habitat. Communities respond to environmental disturbances by succession: the predictable appearance of different types of plant species, until a stable community structure is established.

Review Questions

  1. You are working as a biologist and perform the “mark and recapture” technique to estimate the number of endangered lemurs living within a particular habitat. You initially capture 37 lemurs, marking them all before releasing them. Two months later, you capture 49 lemurs, of which 11 are those originally captured and marked. What is the estimated size of the lemur population, rounded to the nearest whole number?
    1. 60
    2. 86
    3. 97
    4. 165
    5. 407
  2. Which one of the following measuring techniques would best enable you to determine the distribution pattern of a population of zebra?
    1. Track how many and which individuals use a central watering hole
    2. Use a drone to capture aerial photographs of their habitat range
    3. Employ a camera trap in the middle of their habitat
    4. Use the mark-recapture method
    5. Collect and analyze DNA from hair samples collected at 2 locations
  3. A species that you are studying has a type III survivorship curve. Which one of the following describes this type of curve?
    1. Survivorship rates are lowest during early parts of its lifecycle
    2. Survivorship rates are lowest during the late parts of its lifecycle
    3. Survivorship rates are highest during early parts of its lifecycle
    4. Survivorship rates are consistent through the lifecycle
    5. Survivorship rates are highest in the early and middle parts of its lifecycle
  4. A population has unlimited resources and exhibits rapid and sustained population growth. This type of growth would be best described by which one of the following?
    1. Exponential
    2. Logistic
    3. Sigmoidal
    4. Parabolic
    5. Inverse
  5. What single factor has most strongly contributed to the rapid population growth in the human population witnessed over the last 150 years?
    1. Increased fertility rates
    2. Reduced death rates
    3. Longer life spans
    4. Economic growth
    5. Increased morbidity
  6. Which one of the following age groups would most likely to lead to rapid population growth in the future if it contained the greatest relative abundance within that population?
    1. 0-15 years old
    2. 16-30 years old
    3. 31-45 years old
    4. 46-60 years old
    5. 61 years old and greater
  7. Two species have the same ecological niche. If they lived in the same habitat, both would compete until one species became predominant and the other became locally extinct. This process is summarized by which one of the following?
    1. Niche warfare
    2. Competitive exclusion principle
    3. Species selection principle
    4. Exclusion through competition theorem
    5. Exclusive ecological fractioning
  8. Which form of symbiosis benefits one member of the interaction, but neither benefits nor harms the other member?
    1. Parasitism
    2. Commensalism
    3. Sequentialism
    4. Mutualism
    5. Natural selection
  9. Biologists examined the effects of reintroducing wolves into Yellowstone National Park of the United States. They found that by preying on elk, wolves altered the foraging behavior of the elk; the elk spent less time browsing near streambanks. This allowed the regrowth of important vegetation, which had large positive impacts on the ecosystem at large. When a relatively small number of individuals, like wolves, have disproportionate impacts on the ecosystem, they are referred to as a…
    1. Foundation species
    2. Portal species
    3. Keystone species
    4. Cornerstone species
    5. Pivotal species
  10. The 1980 volcanic explosion of Mt. St. Helens in the United States devasted the north side of the mountain and it’s forests. The forests were demolished and replaced with volcanic debris that formed the new soil, free of any remnants of the previous ecosystem (such as seeds stored in the soil). Such an event would lead to which one of the following processes?
    1. Primary succession
    2. Secondary succession
    3. Tertiary succession
    4. Quaternary succession
    5. Pioneering succession

See Appendix for answers


Category: Resources

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1st Edition Schedule

by Donna Young
Schedule for Edition One
See revision notes
[HTML] Supplies List - this is a web page. See Supply List for text document

1st Edition Vocabulary

1st Edition Vocabulary Bookmarks

1, 2, 3 | 4, 5 | * 6 | 7, 8, 9, **10 | 11, 12, 13 | 14, 15, 16
Notes:
I recommend printing the bookmarks on card stock. Students can use the backs of the bookmarks for notes or to write the schedule.
*Module 6 has many terms. The bookmark for module 6 is printed in two parts side-by-side. Cut the the parts out as one piece, fold it in the middle and (optional) glue to make one bookmark for module 6.
**Module 10 is under module 9.

GeoSarfari Desktop Users

GeoSafari Users Instructions for making the cards and resources for the cards.

1st Edition Revision Notes

Parts that will be revised: Some of the figures to be drawn are not mentioned in the schedule: pages: 71-74 - draw and label a diagram of figure 3.2 (only the sketched part, not the photo) pages: 74-78 - do the same with figure 3.4 pages: 170-179 - draw figure 6.1 and figure 6.2 I allowed 3 days for every dissection, but it actually only takes one day to complete each one.

* Apologies for not yet revising the schedule.


Female Hormones

The control of reproduction in females is more complex. As with the male, the anterior pituitary cause the releases the hormones FSH and LH. GnRH controls the secretion of FSH and LH, but in a more complex cyclical manner. In addition, estrogens and progesterone are released from the developing follicles. In females, FSH stimulates development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles. Follicle cells produce the hormone inhibin, which inhibits FSH production. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, induction of ovulation, and stimulation of estrogen and progesterone production by the ovaries. Estrogen and progesterone are steroid hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy. Estrogen produces secondary sex characteristics in females, including breast development, maturation of the external genitalia, and widening of the hips, while both estrogen and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle.

The Ovarian Cycle and the Uterine Cycle

Female reproduction occurs in a cyclical fashion in females. The ovarian cycle governs the preparation of endocrine tissues and release of eggs, while the uterine cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the uterine lining to receive any potential fertilized eggs. The uterine cycle is sometimes referred to as the menstrual cycle. These cycles occur concurrently and are coordinated over a 22–32 day cycle, with an average length of 28 days. The events of these cycles and the hormone actions during them are summarized in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The ovarian and menstrual cycles of female reproduction are regulated by hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. Note that estradiol is a type of estrogen.

The timing of the uterine cycle starts with the first day of menses, referred to as day one of a females’s period. Cycle length is determined by counting the days between the onset of bleeding in two subsequent cycles. Because the average length of a female’s uterine cycle is 28 days, this is the time period used to identify the timing of events in the cycle. However, the length of the uterine cycle varies among women, and even in the same woman from one cycle to the next. The menses phase of the uterine cycle is the phase during which the lining is shed that is, the days that the woman menstruates. Although it averages approximately five days, the menses phase can last from 2 to 7 days, or longer. FSH, LH and progesterone levels are low at this time the drop in these levels causes the endometrial lining to shed.

Once menstrual flow ceases, the endometrium begins to proliferate again, marking the beginning of the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. This usually occurs at around day 5-7 of the cycle. The proliferative phase is named after the growth, or proliferation of the endometrium during this phase, which is caused by increasing concentrations of estrogen.

The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase, which occurs on day 1-14 of the cycle, overlapping with both menses and the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle. Slowly rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary. This process prepares the egg for ovulation. As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Just prior to the middle of the cycle (approximately day 14), the high level of estrogen causes FSH and especially LH to rise rapidly, then fall. The spike in LH causes ovulation: the most mature follicle, like that shown in Figure 3, ruptures and releases its egg. The follicles that did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost. The level of estrogen decreases when the extra follicles degenerate.

Figure 3. This mature egg follicle may rupture and release an egg. (credit: scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Following ovulation, the ovarian cycle enters its luteal phase, illustrated in Figure 2, and the menstrual cycle enters its secretory phase, both of which run from about day 15 to 28. The luteal and secretory phases refer to changes in the ruptured follicle. The cells in the follicle undergo physical changes and produce a structure called a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone. The progesterone facilitates the maintenance and further development of the uterine lining and inhibits the release of further FSH and LH. The uterus is being prepared to accept a fertilized egg, should it occur during this cycle. The inhibition of FSH and LH prevents any further eggs and follicles from developing, while the progesterone is elevated. The level of estrogen produced by the corpus luteum increases to a steady level for the next few days.

If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum degenerates and the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease. The endometrium begins to degenerate as the progesterone levels drop, initiating the next menstrual cycle. The decrease in progesterone also results in increased FSH and LH secretion from the anterior pituitary, and starts the cycles again. Figure 4 visually compares the ovarian and uterine cycles as well as the commensurate hormone levels.

ART CONNECTION Figure 4. Rising and falling hormone levels result in progression of the ovarian and menstrual cycles. Note that estradiol is a type of estrogen. (credit: modification of work by Mikael Häggström)

4.5: Chapter Resources - Biology

In addition to Biology 101:
Birds
• Apologia Biology Exp. 16.1, Bird Embryology (Video below that I plan to use for this.)
• Apologia Biology Exp. 16.2, Bird Identification (2 parts to this) We will do everything at home and used this worksheet.
- List of Birds of North Carolina, grouped by category
• 10 videos by BBC on The Life of Birds - These total over 8 hours. We will watch #2, "Mastery of Flight" and use this accompanying worksheet for assistance in choosing a bird for a report the next day.
Be aware that there is evolutionary content in these videos.

Insects
• Apologia Biology Exp. 12.2, Insect Classification
--A helpful link - BugGuide.net Look through these pages, or click an insect in the box on the left.
--Tips for collecting and mounting insects at Applie's Place. Scroll to the list of requirements this blogger gave her class. There are several more links below that as well.
Another way to do the Killing Jar.

(1) The Life of Birds: Mastery of Flight
►Full length video - this is Day 1 of a 2-day assignment.
Embedding disabled, please watch here.
--accompanying worksheet to use in assistance for choosing a bird for a report the next day.
Please ignore the references to adaption. How would animals live before adapting.



(2) Birds are in the class Aves (AY-vees).
Think of aviation to help you remember how to pronounce aves. =)
How wings work:


(3) Bird Flight animation


(4) Webcams
►Usually in the spring at Norfolk Botanical Gardens, there is a live web feed of Eagles and Eaglets. Watch a couple of videos and read more at Sahm-I-Am. Also video from previous owl webcam.

(5) Bird Embryology (Apologia Biology Exp. 16.1)


►Not for the faint of heart -- Atlas of Avian diseases study bird embryos.

(6) AMAZING! How weaver birds make their nests.

(7) How an Egg is Made

(8) Honey Guide Bird

Insects have an exoskeleton rather than an outer skeleton. So they do not have a backbone which means they are invertebrates.
They also have jointed legs, which means they are arthropods. (pod = foot, kind of like pedal.)

(10) Grasshoppers breathe through spiracles, tiny holes along the abdomen. There is one on each section. In this video, they look like little dark dots.
Order Orthoptera


(11) Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis
Embedding was disabled for these videos, so click on a link to watch.
If you click the first link, they will continue to play in order. 11-12 minutes total. (They are numbered like they are in the playlist.)

►Monarch or Viceroy? (not a video)
How to tell the difference between a Monarch butterfly and a Viceroy?
The difference is the additional black line that goes across the hind wings of the Viceroy. Monarch butterflies are bitter because of what they have eaten, so birds will avoid Viceroys as well as Monarchs, not realizing they are different.

Incomplete Metamorphosis: 3 stages: egg, nymph, adult
67. Preying Mantis Order Orthoptera
68. Preying Mantis life cycle


(12) Whirligig Beetles

(13) Life Cycle of Honey Bees
Order Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Wasps ("social" insects - live in colonies)


(14) Grasshopper Dissection


Extras if you need more.
►Another grasshopper dissection. Part 1, Part 2. (about 14 min total)
Just glanced at it, but seems to have more vocabulary, so it depends on what exactly you are wanting to learn about insects.


References

EMDPrepare. (2009, December 21). About carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide poisoning. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmgIqVwytwA&feature=youtu.be

khanacademymedicine. (2013, February 25). Oxygen movement from alveoli to capillaries | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRpwdwm06Ic&feature=youtu.be

TED-Ed. (2017, April 13). Oxygen’s surprisingly complex journey through your body – Enda Butler. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVU_zANtroE&feature=youtu.be

Biological process through which gases are transferred across cell membranes to either enter or leave the blood.

One of a cluster of tiny sacs at the ends of bronchioles in the lungs where pulmonary gas exchange takes place.

A mixture of lipids and proteins which is secreted by the epithelial type II cells into the alveolar space. Its main function is to reduce the surface tension at the air/liquid interface in the lung.

A large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection.

The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

a type of movement of substances across the cell membrane which does not require energy because the substances are moving with the concentration gradient (from high to low concentration).

The smallest type of blood vessel that connects arterioles and venules and that transfers substances between blood and tissues.


Watch the video: Umweltfaktoren und Ökologische Nischen - Ökologie 3 (August 2022).